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【重磅】 美国排除对双面组件的201条款限制,供应版图将再出现变动

美国贸易代表署(Office of the United States Trade Representative, USTR)昨日(12日)公告,给予双面光伏组件豁免201关税。因此自正式实施日开始,今年双面组件输往美国能够降低25%的税率成本。

双面组件在美国市场的进展虽在今年有所起色,但仍是缓慢地推进、至今仍是较小众的需求,美国政府此举给了双面组件大大的助力。在不用课201税的前提下,无论是双玻、或是透明背板的组件都不会受到201的限制,这让未来美国市场的双面组件将比单面组件便宜,考虑到更好的LCOE,也预期陆续会有项目的需求更改至双面,在今后快速拉升双面组件的市占率。

此项新政策也将再度改变美国市场组件的供应版图。目前,除了美国当地组件厂完全供应至美国市场、以及美国厂商First Solar、SunPower大量的出货到美国外,东南亚各国的庞大产能也是以美国为最主要的输出国。而整体亚洲区的产能除了原先就使用N型工艺能够输出双面的LG、松下(Panasonic)之外,在PERC电池片工艺能够调适到双面之后,现在一线大厂的东南亚产线大多也能够兼容双面组件产出,因此日、韩、东南亚产能都在本次新政中明显受益。美国市场的转变会让近期主推双面的大厂能够在美国此次新政中更快的占得先机。

由PV InfoLink组件出口分析报告来看,2019年截至四月中国双面组件出口约为320MW,隆基、晶澳、常州亿晶及晶科为主要的出口厂商。在出口产品方面,目前双面单晶PERC(72-cell)组件主流瓦数落在360-370W,若搭上半片技术则可推升到375W-380W。也有厂商使用半片并以78片电池片封装可达到400W以上。现阶段中国双面组件出口仍较为集中在特定市场,如墨西哥和埃及,其余零星出口则分布在日本、新加坡、以色列、韩国及部分欧洲市场,如荷兰、比利时、英国等。然预期当双面组件被排除在201条款征税对象之外后,美国将会成为双面组件的主要市场之一。

而美国当地的组件产能因为还是使用2.5GW的电池片免税额进口电池片,无论进口双面或单面电池其实没有太大差异,此政策对美国本土产能并没有太大优势,反而可能将迎接未来现货市场组件降价的冲击。

以上的变化都需待美国官方宣布正式实施之后才能明朗,但双面组件未来在美国的蓬勃发展已可预见,短期内除了美国当地价格及供应的变化以外,也须特别关注供应本来已经紧张的光伏玻璃是否将面临更加紧缺的情势。

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